Have you ever heard of footnotes and endnotes before? When reading an article or a book, have you ever seen some small numbers at the end of sentences or documents? Well, these citations are called endnotes and footnotes. A footnote is a citation in a paper with a superscript at the bottom of the page. Footnotes apply during citation or when you want to add additional information without disrupting the text’s flow.
On the other hand, endnotes cite a particular source or make a brief explanatory comment, usually placed at the end of a research paper. Endnotes appear in the same order as the reference appears in the article. These notes should appear after the reference list, though in other formats, they appear before.
This article will provide a detailed procedure for writing endnotes and footnotes, inserting them, and using different endnotes and footnotes formats.
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Here is a list of steps we will discuss to help write great footnotes and endnotes.
There is no way you can write about something you don’t know. So, it’s wise to research and find out the meaning of endnotes and footnotes. We have given you a clear definition of these terms in the introduction. This step will help you learn where to place them and understand why to use them. So, learn how to write these notes and format them according to your referencing style.
Before writing the footnotes and endnotes, you should first research the topic question. You must learn what you are writing about to ensure you use the appropriate footnotes and endnotes. Do thorough research on the topic as recommended in the term paper writing service article.
Ensure you use credible sources of information for accuracy and relevance. After gathering the relevant content for your article, book, or other documents, you will know where to insert correct endnotes and footnotes.
When researching, you will come across a lot of information that may not be suitable for your topic. Therefore, you should skim through the sources to identify those relevant to your issue. You should use these sources to draft your article, learn more about the topic, or even as references. Since the two notes are different, you should know where a source will apply as a footnote or an endnote. Keep reading to learn the differences between the two notes.
Footnotes and endnotes should contain a superscript number at the end of the sentence with cited information(like a quote, paraphrase, or data). You should place the notes at the end of the sentence they are referring to. These notes can appear after any punctuation mark except for a dash. Remember to number the notes from one consecutively throughout the paper. We will discuss how to insert notes in MS Word and Google Docs later.
There are different note formats depending on the referencing styles that you are using. There are various referencing styles, as we discussed in our “how to format an essay” guide. So, each of the styles has a different note formatting style.
For example, the Chicago style footnotes format includes;
First name, last name, book title ( place of publication, publisher, year of publication), page number
Antony Grafton, The Footnote: A curiosity History(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 221.
Here are the steps on how to use footnotes in Microsoft Word 2021;
Adding footnotes and endnotes in a Google doc is as follows;
Three different referencing styles use footnotes and endnotes. Let’s discuss each in detail below;
Chicago-style footnotes and endnotes format
APA style format for endnotes and footnotes
APA style mostly uses footnotes for copyright permissions for in-text citations as credit for another author’s ideas. Therefore, there are two types of footnotes in APA copyright and content.
This style requires a more detailed acknowledgment of the copyright status, called copyright attribution. Examples that may require copyright attributions include;
Where should you include a copyright attribution in APA? The copyright attribution can appear as a footnote if you are reprinting or adapting a research instrument. But for reprinting or adapting tables and figures, the copyright status should appear at the end of the figure note.
MLA style format for footnotes and endnotes
In the MLA style, footnotes are uncommon unless when providing additional content or if the bibliographic information is complex.
There have been rising cases of suicide among the youth 2
The firm has recently addressed the issue of loses3 —
Depending on the type of notes you use for your article, both have pros and cons.
Most students wonder if the notes are included in the word count, but the answer depends on your school. So, it is always best to check your assignment instructions or ask for clarification. However, the notes should contain supplementary information to the content and thus shouldn’t be counted just like the list of works. Therefore, don’t use any vital information in the note or use these notes to cheat word count. If you feel the topic content is scarce, always consider hiring our writers for detailed and quality work.
The main reasons for using footnotes and endnotes are as follows;
The referencing styles that use notes include;
It’s easy to change the type of notes you have used in your document, from footnotes to endnotes or vice versa.
Both footnotes and endnotes have some common characteristics as follows;
Footnotes can be explanatory or bibliographic. Explanatory footnotes apply when a writer wants to provide additional information to their readers. They are also called content notes, as they can define terms, historical events, etc. Bibliographic footnotes are a bit different as they provide readers with resources used in writing.
Now you know the meaning of notes and how to use them in different formats. Footnotes can be a great asset in your writing if used appropriately. Be sure to follow the above recommendations and choose the preferred style.
When using footnotes and endnotes, always keep your readers in mind. Ensure that the information you provide is helpful and doesn’t clutter your page. That means you should distribute the footnotes in the article and avoid using too many. If you feel the footnotes are unnecessary, avoid them; they will disrupt the flow.
Melanie is a seasoned writer with more than 8 years of experience. She is passionate about academia and works off the clock to ensure she write the topnotch content for her readers.